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Definitions

Disinformation is “Information that is false and deliberately created to harm a person, social group, organisation or country.”  [https://en.unesco.org/fightfakenews] You may not believe false and harmful information but, by sharing it, you are contributing to the serious and growing problem of malicious disinformation.  Responsible digital citizens evaluate and validate information and its sources before sharing.   

Misinformation is “Information that is false but not created with the intention of causing harm.” [https://en.unesco.org/fightfakenews]   

Antisemitism: Jew hatred is a perplexing and continuously shape-shifting disease of the mind that has infected many people over the millennia, which is why antisemitism has come to be known as the world’s oldest hatred. From the Rhineland massacres of 1096 through to the Dreyfus Affair in France in the early 20th century to the murder of six million Jews during the Holocaust to the expulsion of Jews from Arab and Muslim countries in the years following the establishment of the modern state of Israel, antisemitism is and has historically been an unfortunate feature of human experience. The widely celebrated British-American historian Bernard Lewis noted that antisemitism has two distinct characteristics distinguishing it from other forms of hatred: Jews are judged by a different standard than is applied to anyone elseand Jews are attributed a “cosmic evil; that is, Jews are accused of perpetrating a demonic evil on a grand scale.  [https://theamericanscholar.org/the-new-anti-semitism/ In the Middle Ages, Jews were accused of poisoning wells; in the 20th centuryNazis accused Jews of being thsource of the political, social, and economic strife faced by the German people; and, today, Jews are accused of controlling the world’s finances or immigration system or of creating and spreading the COVID-19 virus. To review the most widely-accepted definition of antisemitism today, please see the IHRA working definition.    

Conspiracy theory: A conspiracy theory is a false and unverified “explanation” that claims the existence of (1) a malicious group (2) acting in secret (3) to gain power or change institutions for their own advantage (4) in a way that negatively affects society in general.  [Adapted from Joseph E. Uscinski and Joseph M. Parent, American Conspiracy Theories (Oxford University Press) 2014, quoted in Challenging Conspiracy Theories” pg. 2] 

Disinformation is “Information that is false and deliberately created to harm a person, social group, organisation or country.”  [https://en.unesco.org/fightfakenews] You may not believe false and harmful information but, by sharing it, you are contributing to the serious and growing problem of malicious disinformation.  Responsible digital citizens evaluate and validate information and its sources before sharing.   

Misinformation is “Information that is false but not created with the intention of causing harm.” [https://en.unesco.org/fightfakenews]   

Antisemitism: Jew hatred is a perplexing and continuously shape-shifting disease of the mind that has infected many people over the millennia, which is why antisemitism has come to be known as the world’s oldest hatred. From the Rhineland massacres of 1096 through to the Dreyfus Affair in France in the early 20th century to the murder of six million Jews during the Holocaust to the expulsion of Jews from Arab and Muslim countries in the years following the establishment of the modern state of Israel, antisemitism is and has historically been an unfortunate feature of human experience. The widely celebrated British-American historian Bernard Lewis noted that antisemitism has two distinct characteristics distinguishing it from other forms of hatred: Jews are judged by a different standard than is applied to anyone elseand Jews are attributed a “cosmic evil; that is, Jews are accused of perpetrating a demonic evil on a grand scale.  [https://theamericanscholar.org/the-new-anti-semitism/ In the Middle Ages, Jews were accused of poisoning wells; in the 20th centuryNazis accused Jews of being thsource of the political, social, and economic strife faced by the German people; and, today, Jews are accused of controlling the world’s finances or immigration system or of creating and spreading the COVID-19 virus.   

Conspiracy theory: A conspiracy theory is a false and unverified “explanation” that claims the existence of (1) a malicious group (2) acting in secret (3) to gain power or change institutions for their own advantage (4) in a way that negatively affects society in general.  [Adapted from Joseph E. Uscinski and Joseph M. Parent, American Conspiracy Theories (Oxford University Press) 2014, quoted in Challenging Conspiracy Theories” pg. 2] 

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